Carl Menger: Polymath and Founding Father of the Austrian School of Economics

Carl Menger Polymath and the Founding Father of the Austrian School of Economics

Carl Menger, founding father of the Austrian School, transformed economics with his emphasis on subjectivism, value theory, and market dynamics.

Carl Menger, born into a middle-class family in 1840 in Neu-Sandez, now located in present-day Poland, was a figure of immense intellectual breadth and influence. His early life in a family with strong professional roots—his father a lawyer and his mother from a wealthy merchant background—set the stage for a journey that would see Menger not only delve into economics but also make significant contributions to literature and journalism.

Menger’s academic journey began with studies in law and government science, first in Prague and then in Vienna, at a time when the University of Vienna was experiencing transformative changes. The university’s shift away from the influence of international Catholicism towards state control marked a new era in which Joseph von Sonnenfels emerged as a pioneering figure in government science and economics. Sonnenfels’ utilitarian approach to economic analysis deeply influenced Menger, along with contemporaries such as Eugen von Böhm-Bawerk and Ludwig von Mises.

Beyond his academic pursuits, Menger’s vibrant and energetic personality found expression in literature. Even as he navigated his doctoral exams, he penned several novels, demonstrating a preference for non-academic writing. This literary inclination led him to journalism, where he worked for the Lemberger Zeitung and later founded the Wiener Tagblatt. His journalistic career, particularly at the Wiener Zeitung, provided him with a practical introduction to price theory—a foundation that would later underpin his economic theories.

Menger’s engagement with Austrian philosophy, especially the work of Franz Brentano, further shaped his intellectual outlook. Brentano’s concept of intentionality played a crucial role in Menger’s development of a value theory that would challenge the prevailing economic thoughts of his time.

In 1871, amidst an academic environment dominated by historicism and statism, Menger published “Principles of Economics,” co-pioneering the marginalist approach to value theory. This work not only earned him a professorship at the University of Vienna but also positioned him as a central figure in a methodological dispute with Gustav Schmoller. This dispute highlighted the contrast between the German Historical School’s emphasis on empirical analysis and Menger’s advocacy for theoretical analysis, laying the groundwork for the Austrian School of Economics.

Menger’s contributions to economic theory are distinguished by his rejection of mechanical analogies in price theory, instead arguing for the primacy of utility, value, and price relationships. His work garnered praise from notable economists such as Friedrich Hayek and George Stigler, who recognized the superiority of Menger’s theory of value over his contemporaries’.

Central to Menger’s theory is the concept of subjectivism, which posits that economic phenomena can only be understood through the lens of individual actions and mental frameworks. This perspective diverged from the classical view of economic phenomena as outcomes of physical constants, offering a more nuanced understanding of market dynamics and the role of uncertainty.

Menger’s skepticism towards equilibrium models and his focus on the complexities of market interactions underscored the importance of entrepreneurship and information in economic theory. His methodological approach, characterized by deduction and a rejection of empirical foundations in favor of understanding atomistic forces, set the Austrian School apart from mainstream economics.

Carl Menger’s legacy in economics is profound. His innovative application of philosophical concepts to economic theory, coupled with his emphasis on subjectivism and the role of uncertainty, has left an indelible mark on the field. Through his works, Menger not only founded the Austrian School of Economics but also contributed to a richer, more comprehensive understanding of economic phenomena.


The views expressed on austriancenter.com are not necessarily those of the Austrian Economics Center.

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